Speaking of site creation, it’s hard to get past the topic of web programming. A site consisting of different pages can have a very beautiful design, interesting and well-organized content, etc.

But to bring interactivity, to be able to respond to user actions, to be able to collect and process some information from site visitors is impossible without the use of programs (or as they are commonly called by web developers, scripts).

Only through scripts, it is possible to add voting, feedback form and many other useful things to the site, so without web programming, there is no way to make a quality website.

 What web development tools do website developers use? In fact, they are many. But we should note at the outset that, with all their variety and the variety of programming languages ​​that can be used, all scripts (and the means of writing them, respectively) can be divided into two groups: those that work domestically on the server (i.e., the computer on which the site itself is hosted) and on the client-side (i.e., the computer of the user viewing the site).

Without the use of server scripts, it is not possible, if necessary, to collect and store any information on the server (for example, for an Internet forum it is necessary to organize the reception and saving of messages of users). Client-side scripts allow the user to react when the user views the already downloaded information in the memory of their computer on the page, to change its appearance and content without having to re-upload it to the server. Very often two types of scripts are used to perform a task.

Although there were already a large number of popular and developed programming languages ​​at the beginning of the advent and development of the Internet, Internet programming had its own specificity. On the one hand, new features were needed to simplify the handling of typical data and elements of web pages; on the other, it required specifically limiting the functionality of programming tools so that poorly configured people could use scripts written by them. harm both the servers hosting the site and the user’s computer.

Therefore, specific languages ​​and tools have emerged to solve the problems of web programming. We’ll look at the most common ones.


Javascript is a language developed by Netscape in the early ’90s, a browser that Netscape Navigator was the most popular web browsing tool at the time. The name Javascript is thought of as a connection to the java language, which can also be used in web programming, and indeed, javascript is developed on the basis of Java, but these are different languages. Scripts written in javascript are executed by the client (ie computer users) and not just on the client’s side, but also in the browser, therefore, no additional programs, no plugins, etc. are needed. The script can be easily inserted into the HTML code of the page and will run in any browser.

Javascript is a simple and user-friendly language that allows you to easily manage the content on your pages, track various user actions, and respond to it. Due to this, Javascript has virtually no competitors in its field of application and is the first language a web developer should start learning.


This language is specifically designed for writing programs based on work on computer networks and the Internet. In this language, both server-side and client-side applications can be created, but unlike javascript, the Java program is not embedded in the HTML code but runs under a special Java virtual machine. In addition, Java language can create Java applets, small standalone programs that can be called in the HTML code, and execution of which is provided by the browser.


Flash technology was developed by Macromedia to create animated images. This technology is rapidly deploying, and the Actionscript language built into it is used not only to create animation effects but to write various programs, especially games. ActionScript programs using flash technology are also running on the user’s PC.

If you can check the functionality of javascript programs simply by opening the HTML file in the browser, then the server scripts can only run on the server. The server is called both the computer on the network that is on the web site and the special program that provides the necessary functions. Also, it is not necessary to load the script, for example, in PHP, to test its performance on a remote server. It is possible to install a server program to maintain PHP on your home computer and use the same computer as your server and client.

The Apache server is most popular, but it can also install another program, such as IIS, that comes with the Windows delivery system, or download from the Denver Internet Package, which provides not only support for a relatively small size. server features, but also support for popular web programming languages.

Among server tools and web programming languages ​​we can distinguish the following:


SSI stands for Server Side Include. This is not a language, but rather a small set of directories. The most useful of these is the include directive, which allows the user to include the contents of any file in the HTML code before sending a page to the browser.


Perl is one of the oldest languages ​​that was technically designed for first-generation programming and appeared before the mass development of the Internet. With the advent of internet technology, Perl has begun to be used for writing site programs, but nowadays, Perl is still far more popular than PHP.


Appeared relatively soon, in the mid-1990s, PHP, thanks to its simplicity and flexibility, quickly gathered many fans around the world and became one of the most popular languages ​​in web programming. As in the case of javascript, the PHP code can be written with the HTML code, except that the code is executed by the server before the client is sent to the page and only the result of the script’s operation appears in the browser. With its simplicity and ease of use, PHP is quite versatile, with ease it allows to write programs developed with different databases, with graphics, etc., which makes this language an ideal choice for beginner web developers.


MySQL is the name not in the programming language but in the database that is most popular among those used in site development. Of course, all the necessary information can be stored in files, but when it becomes too much and when it becomes necessary to structure it, without a database it is difficult, so familiarizing at least at a basic level with the MySQL language will be very useful for the novice web developer.

On the Internet, as well as in life, the situation has evolved towards creating maximum amenities for the laziest and least literate users. One of the manifestations of such a trend is the emergence and increasing popularity of the site engine standard and CMS (Content Management System). Or “Content Management System.” The CMS from the user’s point of view is a shell that can be filled with its content, and give it its layout, structure, and supplement with standard features and capabilities (votes, forums, blogs, etc.).

CMS is something like an upgradeable constructor that allows you to create your interactive website, containing working scripts not only without web programming knowledge but even the basics of HTML and web design. Do you prefer pre-engine and CMS engines instead of writing original scripts for your site? In some cases, for example, when you have little time or when the standard features of the finished template suit you, this may be a rational choice, but in most cases, such choices have several downsides.

This is also the complexity of adjusting to specific requirements, the capacity of the code, which will delay the operation of the site, as a consequence, security issues.

Undoubtedly, studying web programming will be preferable for anyone who has decided to start creating their websites.

Programs and Programming Languages
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